is a huge part of sport psychology. Motivation is made up of direction
of efforts and the intensity of efforts. The direction of efforts
is whether an individual seeks out, approaches or is attracted
to a certain situation. The intensity of effort is how much effort
a person puts forth in a situation.
Most people are motivated to participate
in sports in order to improve their
skills, have fun, be with friends, experience thrills and excitement,
achieve success and develop fitness. The specific types of motivation
that people are experiencing when they participate in sports are
achievement motivation which is a self directed goal of achievement,
and competitiveness. This is a motivation that comes from the
idea that others are evaluating you.
There are several theories that
tell us about motivation and what specifically are the keys that
make up high achievers and low achievers.
1) The Motivational Orientation Theory:
* High Achievers: High achievers have a high motivation to achieve
success, a low motivation to fail and a focus on the pride of
* Low Achievers: Low achievers have a low motivation to achieve
success and a high motivation to achieve failure. They focus on
the shame and worry that may come from failure.
2) Attribution Theory:
* High Achievers: High achievers ascribe their success to factors
within themselves and that they can control - like their own endurance
and drive. They ascribe failures to outside factors that they
can't control - like other peoples abilities.
* Low Achievers: Low achievers ascribe their success to factors
outside their control - such as their opponents abilities and
they ascribe their failure to internal factors within their control
- such as their own abilities.
3) Goal Adoption Theory:
* High Achievers: High achievers have goals for doing certain
tasks (i.e., like running a good race).
* Low Achievers: Low achievers have goals for getting a certain
outcome (i.e., like winning a race).
4) Perceived Competence and Control Theories:
* High Achievers: High achievers have a high belief in their abilities
and feel that their achievements are in their control.
* Low Achievers: They have low perceived competence and feel that
achievement is out side their control.
5) Task Choice Theory:
* High Achievers: High achievers seek out challenges and other
* Low Achievers: Low achievers avoid challenges and seek out either
very difficult or very easy tasks and competitors.
Performance - PST
Aspects of PST