(I/O) psychology studies human behaviour
as it occurs in a business or industrial/organizational
setting. It is a branch of psychology that applies the principles
of psychology to the workplace. It is the scientific study of
the relation between man and the world of work. Specifically,
the social and psychological climate of the work place is studied.
This can include looking at leadership, motivation or
There are certain areas of
I/O psychology that are concentrated upon within
the field. Research is done on areas such as:
* Personnel (Employee) functioning - employee selection and testing,
training, performance appraisal, job analysis and evaluation
* Individual worker issues - such as motivation, satisfaction
* Organizational issues - such as communication, conflict management.
Job satisfaction, motivation, group processes and leadership
* Environmental issues - such as the people and setting within
one works and the conditions and safety of the work place; and
finally other issues such as consumer psychology.
This field of psychology has a
lot of relevance to our everyday lives. It affects our jobs obviously,
but it also affects us as we are consumers, we experience stress,
we need to learn proper communication etc. From an employers perspective,
they can save money because they have a better understanding of
their workplace and its employees. They can reduce turnover and
decrease absenteeism. They can increase productive and use more
effective marketing tools. As well, accident prevention can increase.
In a way, industrial psychologists
attempt to diagnose and develop "remedies" for organizations.
They may address restructuring issues, downsizing and cultural
A facet of I/O psychology is that
of Engineering psychology - which focuses
on people in a man-machine environment. It is concerned with the
creation of work environments that are
compatible with human skills, talents and limitations.
Other related areas include:
* Vocational counseling - where individuals are assisted in identifying
suitable careers based on abilities and interests
* Industrial relations - which focus on employee-management relations,
such as collective bargaining, negotiations, dispute resolution
and employee law.