A personality disorder
is a long-standing, pervasive, rigid pattern of thought, feeling
and behaviour that interferes with functioning and causes unhappiness
for the person suffering and often the people around them.
a) Paranoid Personality Disorder: This personality
disorder is marked by a suspicion of people in almost all situations,
with no reason. They feel that everyone is against them and are
constantly scanning the environment for proof of their suspicions.
This suspicion has drastic effects on emotional adjustment and
interferes with relationships.
b) Schizotypal Personality Disorder: In schizotypal
personality disorder, a persons speech, behaviour, thinking and/or
perceptions are disturbed in an odd way, but not disturbed enough
to be diagnosed as schizophrenic.
c) Schizoid Personality Disorder: This disorder
involves a severely restricted range of emotions that is most
associated with a social detachment. A person with this disorder
has little or no interest in relationships and are distant from
their families, rarely marry, and have no close friends. In some
cases the ability to experience positive emotions at all is restricted.
They are totally absorbed with themselves.
d) Borderline Personality Disorder: Borderline
personality disorder is characterized by an unstable sense of
self, a needy dependency on relationships with others in order
to achieve a sense of identity, distrust of other people, a suspicion
of people and an expectancy that they will be abandoned or victimized,
an ambivalence towards people, impulsive and self-destructive
behaviour, unpredictability in actions, self-destructive behaviour,
manipulative behaviours, and difficulty in controlling anger and
other emotions, often existing in a state of perpetual grief and
e) Histrionic Personality Disorder: The main
feature of this disorder is self-dramatization - an exaggerated
display of emotion. These emotional outbursts are manipulative
and are aimed at attracting attention and sympathy. Due to this
excessive drama, their interpersonal relationships are fragile.
f) Narcissistic Personality Disorder: This disorder
is characterized by a grandiose sense of self-importance, which
is often combined with periods of feelings of insecurity and inferiority.
They brag of their achievements and predict great successes for
themselves in their future, and expect the attention and adoration
that would be given someone as gifted as they think they are.
This self-love, however, is accompanied by a fragile self-esteem,
which causes the individual to constantly check how he or she
is regarded by others and to react to criticism with rage and
despair. These people are poorly equipped for relationships with
others, as they demand a great deal from others and give little
in return, showing a lack of empathy. As well, they choose their
friends based on what they can get from them.
g) Avoidant Personality Disorder: This disorder
is marked by social withdrawal. This withdrawal is due to a fear
of rejection. The person is hypersensitive to any possibility
of rejection, humiliation or shame. They want to be loved and
accepted, but they think that they will not, therefore causing
then to avoid relationships unless they are constantly reassured
of the others affection. They have low self-esteem and are depressed.
h) Dependent Personality Disorder: This disorder
involves a dependence on others. These people are fearful and
incapable of making decisions on their own. Underneath this dependency
exists a fear of abandonment.
i) Obsessive compulsive personality disorder: The
defining characteristics of this disorder are excessive preoccupation
with orderliness, perfectionism, and control. They are very interested
in efficiency - organizing, following rules, and making lists
and schedules. They become so obsessed with this that they cease
to be efficient, as they never get anything really important done.
They are generally stiff and formal in their dealings with others,
and they cannot really take any genuine pleasure in anything.
Often obsessive compulsive personalities tend to be workaholics.
Emotional & Behavioural Disorders
& Somatoform Disorders
Stress & Physical Disorders
Dysfunction's, Paraphilias & Gender Identity Disorders
Psychotic and Neuropsychological Disorders
of Childhood & Adolescence
Retardation & Autism
& Violent Behaviour